More rigorous data on time, location, and sociocultural trends in disease would enable better assessment of potential health problems caused by environmental factors and other products from new technologies. At a public meeting that the committee held on health effects of GE foods, a question was raised about whether current testing for allergenicity is insufficient because some people do not have acidic conditions in their stomachs. Regarding that issue, digestibility of the proteins is assessed with simulated gastric fluid (0.32 percent pepsin, pH 1.2, 37ºC), under the premise that an undigested protein may lead to the absorption of a novel allergenic fragment (Astwood et al., 1996; Herman et al., 2006). Stomach fluid is typically acidic, with a pH of 1.5-3.5, which is the range at which pepsin (the digestive enzyme of the stomach) is active, and the volume of stomach fluid is 20-200 mL (about 1-3 ounces).
When benefits are offset by a contaminant, a situation of inverse confounding occurs, which may be very difficult to adjust for . The potential negative effects of dietary pesticide residues on consumer health should of course not be used as an argument for reducing fruit and vegetable consumption.
The differences were considered to be small and within the range of published values for other soybean varieties. They were therefore “considered not biologically relevant.” In compositional analysis, as in some of the whole-food animal testing, it is difficult to know how much of the variance and range in values for the components is due to the crop variety, the growing conditions, and the specific laboratory experimental equipment. In the United States, regulatory agencies require that the comparison be between the GE crop and its isogenic conventionally bred counterpart grown in side-by-side plots. In those cases, it is hard to attribute differences to anything but the genetic-engineering process.
A powder or tincture of this plant is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in Europe, and a preparation of the plant in alcohol is used in China and Korea as an anesthetic (Neptune-Rouzier 1997). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage, and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000).
The medicinal uses of this plant in the Caribbean region, as well as its chemistry, biological activity, toxicity and dosages, are discussed by Germosén-Robineau (1997). Details of the active chemical compounds, effects, herbal usage and pharmacological literature of this plant are given in Fleming (2000).
Cancer of the esophagus. Taking selenium supplements does not seem to lower the risk of esophageal cancer.
Ricroch (2013) updated the number of studies to 60. The committee found that many more studies had been done since those reviews were published, and many of them have used multiple -omics approaches. The sophistication of the studies has increased (Ibáñez et al., 2015) and is likely to increase further. As recommended in Chapter 7, there is a need to develop further and share databases that contain detailed -omics data (Fukushima et al., 2014; Simó et al., 2014).
Heart disease. Taking selenium does not appear to reduce the risk of heart disease. In people who already have heart disease, taking 100 mcg of selenium in combination with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E does not seem to prevent the condition from becoming worse. Also, taking 200 mcg of selenium daily for almost 8 years does not reduce the chance of developing heart disease.