datanavigator

The National Statistical Institute presents the bilingual (Bulgarian/English) brochure Bulgaria 2018 to users of statistical information. The brochure is addressed to a wide range of users (international institutions, business, students, experts etc.) and changes the traditional presentation of statistical information by offering an innovative structure with a parallel translation in English. The publication contains topical statistical information about the demographic, social and economic development of the country over the 2013 – 2017 period. In 2008 the total expenditure amount to 0.49% of GDP, which is only 0.year 01 percentage points higher than the previous.

In constant price terms, it increased by 5.3%. R&D intensity (R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP) is an indicator of high political importance at the EU, national and regional levels because this indicator measures the Europe 2020 strategy’s headline target to invest 3% of EU’s GDP in R&D. The growth of the indicator seems to be promising. Over the last decade, the total intramural R&D expenditure in Poland increased four times while the UE average grew just by one-third nearly.

They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions may be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The website has been developed by the Federal Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).

R&D expenditure can be disaggregated by sector of performance, source of funds, field of R&D, type of research and type of cost. The Frascati Manual provides more details related to these breakdowns (what these breakdowns/classifications are, the purposes, including user needs, the main criteria that are applied, etc). This indicator is defined as the total intramural expenditure on research and experimental development (R&D) performed in the national territory during a specific reference period expressed as a percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP). The gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicator is used for international comparisons.

In a minor number of countries, micro enterprises with less than 10 employees where R&D activity is expected to be negligible are excluded from the R&D surveys. However, this has only a minor impact on the aggregated data.

The R&D intensity (the ratio of GERD to GDP) increased, rising from 1.31% in 2013 to 1.38% in 2014. In 2014, in current price terms Italy’s gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was nearly 22,3 billion euro. It increased by 6.2% compared to 2013.

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides a guide to conducting an R&D survey for countries starting to measure R&D (please find the link in the reference section below). In addition to summarizing main concepts and definitions from the Frascati Manual, this guide presents the relevant R&D indicators, addresses common issues encountered in data collection, provides a simple project management template, and proposes generic model questionnaires for the national government, Higher education, Business enterprise and Private non-profit sectors. Data for this indicator is primarily collected through nationally representative R&D surveys, which are conducted by the national statistical offices or relevant line ministries such as the ministry of science and technology.

Data Analysis Bulletin, 16, 91-103. In 2013, governments adopted the SEE 2020 Strategy mirroring its EU namesake, in which they commit to raising their R&D intensity and boosting the size of their highly skilled labour force. This strategy is complemented by the Western Balkans Regional Research and Development Strategy for Innovation (2013) promoting technology transfer from public research organizations to the private sector and greater collaboration with industry; it advocates smart specialization in high-opportunity areas, such as ‘green’ energy and innovation, and includes a component promoted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics of bringing the region’s statistics up to EU standards by 2018. In 2011 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 429.6 million BGN or by 1.9% more in comparison with the previous year, as their growth compared to the previous years in absolute value had no impact on the R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as % of GDP) which is one of the key indicators for measuring progress of the European Union (EU) in achieving the targets of the new Europe 2020 strategy – a strategy for smart, . inclusive and sustainable growth.} The indicator ‘R&D expenditure’ is defined as all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit, whatever the source of funds.

However, even the more industrialized countries of Serbia and Croatia suffer from weak university-industry linkages. Strong growth in the true number of doctorate-holders has enabled researcher density to grow in most countries. The expenditure on intramural Development and Research increased in all the four sectors. In particular, the Business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) registered a 7.5% increase on the previous year, the Higher education sector a +6.5%, the national government a +0.8% and the Private non-profit sector a +5.5%.

2002. This domain features statistics derived from the European Patent Office (EPO) raw database PATSTAT, on patents from EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), triadic patent families and Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. Patent statistics breakdowns include the fields of the International Patent Classification (IPC); institutional sector, economic activities, foreign ownership and also High Tech patents and aggregations by several technology areas (i.e. ICT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, “green” energy technologies). Science, technology and innovation statistics have been acknowledged in 2010 by the Commission as to be closely linked to the policy activities carried out by the European Union. This places Innovation indicators as a key element in monitoring the objectives of the Innovation Union initiative and European Research Area (ERA) under the different priorities of the Europe 2020 Strategy.

The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are close to those contained in the Frascati Manual sufficiently. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is at the end of the list almost. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.

It covers all expenditure for R&D performed in the economy, including both current costs and capital expenditures for R&D. Slovenia is often considered a leader in the region. Its GERD/ GDP ratio rose from 1.63% to 2.59% between 2008 and 2013, albeit within a contracting GDP. Slovenia is also the only country in Southeast Europe where business enterprises fund and perform the majority of R&D. Although business R&D has stagnated in most other countries, R&D intensity has risen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Serbia and Macedonia; as of 2012, it was close to 1% in Serbia (0.91), which was performing better in innovation surveys also.

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