Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly’s appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings. Transcriptome analysis of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui during wing color pattern development.
CO2 and winter temperature effects on white birch
The amplitude of the reflectance is proportional to the number of lamellae in the ridge stacks. The angle-dependent peak wavelength of the observed iridescence is in agreement with classical multilayer theory. The iridescence is virtually always in the ultraviolet wavelength range, but some species have a blue-peaking iridescence.
T1 was found to be the most toxic to net photosynthesis and growth of both species followed in order by Cd, Ni, and Pb. Acid deposition may adversely affect northern forest ecosystems by increasing the concentration of metals in the soil solution. This study investigates the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on paper birch and jack pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu, Ni, or Al in sand culture.
variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly . on the wings . Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations.
We detected a strong phylogenetic signal in wing -thorax ratio in both sexes. Stouter fast-flying species preferred the canopy, whereas more slender slow-flying species preferred the understorey. However, this relationship was stronger in females than in males, suggesting that female phenotype associates more intimately with habitat conditions. Within species, males were stouter than females and sexual dimorphism was sharper in understorey species. Because trait-habitat relationships were independent from phylogeny, the matching between flight morphology and stratum preference is more likely to reflect adaptive radiation than shared ancestry.
The presence of metal minerals affected fungal growth, and cobalt carbonate showed the highest toxicity. The solubilization index decreased when the concentration of metal minerals increased. Astraeus odoratus showed the lowest tolerance to metals.
In the present study the seedlings of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek were treated with various concentrations of nickel chloride and their impact on the morphometric, biochemical and enzyme characters were studied. After ten days treatment with different concentration of nickel chloride (2mM, 4mM, 6mM, 8mM and 10mM) the growth parameter such as leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, shoot and root lengths were decreased than the control.
B. ermanii can invade serpentine soil and grow in it, whereas B.
Nickel toxicity in mycorrhizal bich seedling infected with Lactarius rufus and Scleroderma flavidum. I. Effect on growth, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration
Commercially important ornamental flowering plant Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees. commonly known as â€˜Fire crackerâ€™ plant was evaluated for the possible effects of inoculation of different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species fungal species on growth, yield, flower quality, and phosphorus (P) nutrition.
Changes in ECM communities through primary and secondary succession are reviewed and related to the influence of N availability. The effect of N-related functional traits of ECM fungi on their distribution is discussed. Part II focuses on the ECM plant partners. The influence of ECM fungi on plant N uptake, and effects of N deposition and fertilization are presented. The benefit of ECM inoculation under different disturbance regimes and the benefit of greater ECM diversity are reviewed.
The biomass and elements of plants were also measured after harvest. The ameliorating effect of ECM infection on host plants exposed to toxic stress was metal concentration specific. Under lower-level Cu stress, ECM fungi increased seedling performance, while ECM seedlings accumulated more Cu than nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings. Under higher-level Cu stress, photosynthesis decreased well before visible symptoms of Cu toxicity appeared.
Main effects of nitrogen supply and drought stress upon whole-plant carbon allocation in poplar
Variations among and within tree and ECM fungal species in the forms of N taken up and utilized are highlighted. Conclusions include recommendations for including ECM fungi in forest restoration projects. The roots of most plants are colonized by symbiotic fungi to form mycorrhiza, which play a critical role in the capture of nutrients from the soil and therefore in plant nutrition.