The digestive and excretory systems review

These waves also play a role in mixing food with digestive juices. Peristalsis is so powerful that foods and liquids you swallow enter your stomach even if you are standing on your head. The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system. Table 1 provides an overview of the basic functions of the digestive organs. Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food to different processing stations in the digestive tract.

Layers of the GI Tract

Also called gall. Radionuclide scanning is a non-invasive screening technique used for locating sites of acute bleeding, especially in the lower GI tract. This procedure

Bile produced by the liver is also used to mechanically break fats into smaller globules. While food is being mechanically digested it is also being chemically digested as larger and more complex molecules are being broken down into smaller molecules that are easier to absorb. Chemical digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase in saliva splitting complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates. The enzymes and acid in the stomach continue chemical digestion, but the bulk of chemical digestion takes place in the small intestine thanks to the action of the pancreas.

In a different and rare manner, secretin, produced in the small intestine, has most effects on the pancreas, but will also diminish acid secretion in the stomach. The epithelium of the stomach forms deep pits, called fundic or oxyntic glands. Different types of cells are at different locations down the pits.

the body's process of eliminating indigestible

Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine. A system of ducts connects the right and left lobes.

  • Sucrase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide sucrose, commonly known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar.
  • You chew incoming food into a rough mash; it moves into the stomach for another round of mixing, mashing and marinating, and then travels through the intestine as a fairly homogenous paste.
  • Conditions that affect the function of accessory organs-and their abilities to deliver pancreatic enzymes and bile to the small intestine-include jaundice, acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and gallstones.
  • Salivary glands beneath and in back of the tongue secrete the saliva that allows for easier swallowing of food and the beginning of chemical digestion.
  • The digestive system moves food along by way of peristalsis, a wavelike contraction of smooth (involuntary) muscle.


The role of this green, pear-shaped organ is to store bile (a liquid that aids digestion) and make it thicker and stronger before adding it to the small intestine. Sucrase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide sucrose, commonly known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar.

examples of these disorders are. The gallbladder is connected to the main bile duct through the gallbladder duct (cystic duct).

Helpful organisms synthesize vitamins, like B12, biotin, and vitamin K. They breakdown toxins and stop proliferation of harmful organisms. They stimulate the immune system and produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are required for the health of colon cells and help prevent colon cancer.

Description of the digestive system

It has also been reported that serotonin is linked with normal GI functioning. 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is located in the GI tract (the other 5 percent is in the brain). People with IBS have diminished receptor activity, causing abnormal levels of serotonin in the GI tract.

the body's process of eliminating indigestible

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